Archive for the ‘Positioning Guide’ Category

Detailed Anatomy of the Forearm For RadTech


lateral bone of the forearm (thumb side)

Shorter of the 2 bones of the forearm

Directly involved in the formation of the wrist joint (radiocarpal joint).

forearm with label complete

The Proximal Extremity

Radial Head, neck, and a tuberosity.

Radial Head

 Disc shaped that articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and radial notch of the ulna.

 Located on the proximal part of the radius.

Radial Neck

 Constricted part distal to the head, connecting the head to the body.

The Radial tuberosity

 Rough prominence on the anteromedial surface of the radius below its neck.

 The biceps tendon inserts into it.


The Body/shaft

 Becomes gradually larger as it approaches the wrist joint.

The Distal Extremity

 Styloid process, carpal articular surface and ulnar notch.

The Styloid Process of the Radius

 Large bony prominence on the lateral border and distal end of the radius.

 Can be palpated on the thumb of the wrist joint.

 Much larger than the styloid process of the ulna.

The Carpal articular surface

 Large smooth area on the distal end of the radius that articulates with the carpal bones to form the wrist joint.

The Ulnar Notch

 Small depression on the medial aspect of the distal radius.

 The head of the ulna fits here.



The medial bone of the forearm

Situated at the little finger side.

The longer of the 2 bones of the forearm

Directly involved in the formation of the elbow joint.

The Proximal Extremity

Olecranon, coronoid process, trochlear notch and a radial notch.

The Olecranon/Olecranon Process

Can easily be palpated on the posterior aspect of the elbow.

Has an anterior smooth surface that is concave and helps form the elbow joint.

Coronoid Process

Beak-like and lies below and anterior to the olecranon process.

Fits into the coronoid fossa of the humerus when the elbow is flexed.

The Brachialis muscle is attached here.

Together with the olecranon receives the trochlea of the humerus.

Trochlear/Semilunar Notch

Curved area between the olecranon and the coronoid process.

The trochlea of the humerus fits into this notch.

Radial Notch

Located on the lateral aspect of the proximal ulna.

Located laterally and inferiorly to the trochlear notch.

It receives the head of the radius.


The Coronoid Tubercle/Tuberosity

 The medial margin of the coronoid process opposite the radial notch.


 Large at its superior end, becomes smaller as it approaches the wrist.

Distal Extremity

 Head and styloid process

Head of the Ulna

 Lower expanded end and can be palpated through the skin.

 Visible as a prominence on the posteromedial border of the wrist.

 When the hand is pronated the head and styloid process are easily felt and seen on the little finger side of the distal forearm.

The Styloid Process of the Ulna

 Small pointed prominence that extends distally on the posteromedial border of the ulnar head.

Anatomy of the Vertebral Column


  • It forms the central axis of the skeleton.
  • Is centered in the midsagittal plane of the posterior trunk.


  1. It encloses and protects the spinal cord.
  2. Acts as support for the trunk.
  3. It supports the skull superiorly.
  4. Attachment of ribs laterally.

v   In early life the vertebral column normally consists of 33 small, irregular bones which we called vertebrae.


  1. 7 Cervical Vertebrae – Upper seven vertebrae that occupy the region of the neck.
  2. 12 Thoracic Vertebrae – It lies in the dorsal portion of the thorax.
  3. 5 Lumbar Vertebrae – Occupying the region of the loin or lumbus.
  4. 5 Sacral Vertebrae
  5. 3 to 5 Coccygeal Vertebrae
  •  The 24 segments of the upper three regions remain distinct throughout life and are termed true or movable vertebrae.
  • The segments in the two lower regions are called false or fixed vertebrae, because of the change they undergo in adults.
  • The sacral segments usually fuse into one bone termed sacrum.
  • Coccygeal segments, referred to as coccyx, often fuse into one bone.

v   Vertebral column presents four curves that arch anteriorly and posteriorly from the midaxillary line of the body.


  1. Cervical
  2. Thoracic
  3. Lumbar
  4. Pelvic
  •  Cervical and Lumbar Curves, which are convex anteriorly and are called Lordotic Curves.
  •  Thoracic and Pelvic Curves are concave anteriorly and are called Kyphotic curves.
  •  The Thoracic and Cervical curves merge smoothly while Lumbar and pelvic curves join at an obtuse angle termed the Lumbosacral or sacrovertebral angle.
  •  The thoracic and pelvic curves are called primary curves, because they are present at birth.
  • Cervical and lumbar curves are called secondary or compensatory curves, because they develop after birth.
  • Cervical curves, which is the least pronounced of the curves, develops when the child begins to hold the head up at about 3 or 4 months of age and begin to sit alone at about 8 to 9 months of age.
  •  The lumbar curves develop when the child begins to walk at about 1 ½ years of age.
  • The lumbar and pelvic curves are more pronounced in females, causing a more acute angle at the lumbosacral junction.

Guidelines in the Proper Use of Lead Markers in Radiographic Examinations

Every radiographic examinations has its own specific rules or specifications to follow, as well as the use of various cassettes, which contains barcode labels. These rules or specifications may vary form one patient to another or from one requesting physician to another. Whatever the instructions or guidelines they are, there are still general rules or guidelines that must be followed.

I have listed below the:

Guidelines in the Proper Use of Lead Markers in Radiographic Examinations 

1. Left or right markers must always be used in Read the rest of this entry »

Get updated and download Radiology 101's Android App in your phone now!>

Copyright © 2014 Radiology 101. Search Engine Optimization by Star Nine. Distributed by Wordpress Themes