Complete Alphabetical List of Radiographic Projections

This is the complete alphabetical list of named Radiographic Projections.

A – C

ADAMS (MODIFICATION OF HERMODSSON’S VIEW)
The same as Hermodsson’s view but with internal rotation increased from 70 degrees to 100 degrees. See Hermodsson?s view.
Ref:Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults, Lippincott.

AHLBACK METHOD
Weight-bearing AP view of the knee in full extension.

ALBERS-SCHONBERG
Demonstrates the TMJs.Head in the lateral position, then rotate the head 20 degrees towards the film. Centre to the TMJ in contact with the film, with the tube angled 20 degrees upwards.

ALEXANDER METHOD
View of the optic canal in cross section.Both sides for comparison.Patient sat with the back of head against the skull table. Upper border of the skull table angled backward 15 degrees . Position the patients head so that the midsagittal plane makes an angle of 40 degrees to the plane of the bucky. Head extended so that the acanthomeatal line is at right angles to the plane of the bucky. Centre to the lower outer margin of the orbit away from the film.

ALEXANDER METHOD (ACJ)
Routine lateral oblique view of the acromio-clavicular joint.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography, 11th Ed

ALEXANDER STRESS VIEW
View of the acromio-clavicular joint.Position as for lateral scapula. Patient then asked to thrust the affected shoulder forward.
Ref: Alexander, O.M.Radiography of ACJ articulation, Med. Radiogra. 30:34-39, 1954.

ALTSCHUL
Position as for Townes (half-axial skull view) view but angle 35 degrees rather than 30 degrees.

ANTHONSON’S VIEW
Subtalar joint view.Foot in the lateral position. Dorsi-flex the foot. Angle the vertical central ray 25 degrees towards the foot and, 30 degrees towards the toes. Centre immediately below the medial malleolus.

ARCELIN
Demonstrates the petrous temporal region.Head in the AP position and rotate 45 degrees away from the side being examined with the radiographic baseline at right angles to the film. Centre to the baseline at a point 2.5cm in front of the EAM, with the tube angled 10 degrees to the feet. Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright

BALL CATCHERS VIEW
See Norgaads view.


BALL?S METHOD (AP)
Pelvimetry view.Patient erect, centre the horizontal beam to the midline at the level of the superior border of the symphysis pubis.

BALL?S METHOD (LATERAL)
Pelvimetry view.Patient erect in the lateral position. Centre horizontal central ray to the level of the superior border of the acetabulum.

BECLERE METHOD
View of the intercondyloid fossa in profile.Patient supine. Knee flexed so that the long axis of the femur is at 120 degrees to the long axis of the tibia. Direct the central ray at right angles to the long axis of the tibia and centre to the knee joint.

BERQUIST VIEW
See Capitellum view

BERTEL
Demonstrates the orbital floors and the infra-orbital fissure.Head in the PA position with radiographic baseline at right angles to the film. Centre to the nasion with the tube angled 20 degrees towards the head
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol.

BETT’S VIEW
View to demonstrate the trapezium. Shows the trapezium without the overlapping of other carpal bones.

Gedda / Betts or Clements view.
It?s basically an offsetview where you externally rotate the wrist and hand obliquly it to the image plate at about 45 degrees, and angle cranially about 5 degrees It not only gives you a full view of the trapezium, but it gives you a good CMC view and then isolates the STT and TT joints. It helps to stage arthritic disease and in the selection of surgical technique

BIGLIANI’S VIEW (Y VIEW)
Hip projection.Pelvis in the AP position. Flex, abduct and externally rotate the hip. Centre to the hip joint.

BLACKETT-HEALY METHODS
Shoulder views
1. A tangential projection of the insertion of the teres minor. Patient prone. Internally rotate the arm, flex the elbow and place the hand on the back. Centre to the head of the humerus.
2. A tangential projection of the insertion of the subscapularis. Patient supine. Abduct the arm, flex the elbow, and pronate the hand. Centre to the shoulder joint.

BLONDEAU
OM facial bones overtilted by 5 degree

BLOOM AND OBATA
See Velpeau.

BRATTSTROM METHOD
Skyline patella.

BREWERTON’S VIEW
To show erosions of the metacarpal heads and the bases of the phalanges.Hand in the AP position i.e. palm facing upwards. The metacarpal-phalangeal joints are flexed to 45 degrees with the phalanges in contact with the film. Tube angled 20 degrees (from ulnar side) to the head of the third metacarpal.

BRIDGEMAN VIEW
See Stecher Method, point1.

BRODEN I
Subtalar joint view.Foot positioned as for AP ankle, then rotate the foot 45 degrees medially. Angled the tube cranially between 10 degrees and 40 degrees .

BRODEN II
Subtalar joint view.Foot positioned as for AP ankle, then rotate the foot 45 degrees externally. Angle the tube cranially 15 degrees.
Ref: Hansen and Swiontkowski, ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA PROTOCOLS, Raven Press.

BUTTERFLY VIEWS
Elongated views of the rectosigmoid segments of large intestine.AP BUTTERFLYCentre 5cm inferior to the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) and angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the head.

LPO BUTTERFLY
Centre 5cm inferior to and 5cm medial to the right ASIS. Angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the head.

PA BUTTERFLY

Centre to the ASIS and angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the feet.

RAO BUTTERFLY
Centre to the level of the ASIS and 5cm to the left of the lumbar spinous processes. Angle the vertical central ray 40 degrees towards the feet.

CAHOON
View to demonstrate the styloid processes of the skull.Position as for Bertel’s view and angle the tube 25 degrees cranially.
Ref: Goldman and Cope. A Radiographic Index. Wright Publishing, Bristol.

CALDWELL
Routine OF 20 view of the skull.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.

CAMP COVENTRY METHOD
View of the intercondylar notch.Patient prone. The tibia is elevated by 40-50 degrees. The central ray is directed to the knee joint so that it makes a right angle with the long axis of the tibia.

CAPITELLUM VIEW (BERQUIST VIEW)
View to demonstrate fractures of the radial head.Patient positioned as for lateral elbow. The tube is angled 45 degrees to the forearm along the humeral axis. Centre to the radial headwards.
Ref: Berquist, T. (1993). Diagnostic Radiographic Techniques in the Elbow. The Elbow and its Disorders, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia 98-119.

CARPEL BOSS
Demonstrates bony protuberance on the dorsum of the wrist at the level of the second and third carpo-metacarpal joints.Wrist slightly ulnar deviated with the ulnar side to the cassette. 30 degree supination of the wrist to place the dorsal prominence at the dorsoradial aspect of the second to third carpo-metacarpal joints and at a tangent to the vertical central ray. Centre to pass through the dorsal prominence.
Ref: Gilula and Yin. Imaging of the Wrist and Hand, Saunders.

CARPAL BRIDGE VIEW
A tangential projection of the carpus. Demonstrates fractures of the scaphoid, lunate dislocations, and foreign bodies in the dorsum of the wrist.The back of the hand rests on the cassette with the forearm at right angles to the hand. Direct the central ray 4cm proximal to the wrist joint with a 45 degree angle towards the fingers.
Ref: Lentino, W. et al (1957). The carpal bridge view, J. Bone Joint Surg. 39-A:88-90.

CARPAL CANAL
Routine carpal tunnel view.
Ref: K.Clarke. Positioning in Radiography. 11th Ed.

CAUSTON METHOD
Oblique foot projection to demonstrate the sesamoids.Foot lateral with the medial side against the cassette. Angle the central ray 40 degrees towards the ankle and centre to the first metatarsophalangeal sesamoids.
Ref: Causton, J. (1943):Projection of the sesamoid bones in the region of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, Radiology 9:39.

CHASSARD’S VIEW
View to show the sigmoid colon.Patient sits with both legs over the side of the table and leans forward slightly. Centre fairly high up the patients back.

CHAUSSE II
Oblique transoral view of the foramen jugulare.The patient is positioned as for an AP skull with the mouth wide open. Rotate the head 10 degrees away from the side in question. Direct the central ray up through the open mouth so that it makes an angle of 35 degrees to a line joining the superior border of the EAM and the anterior nasal spine.
Ref: Chausse, C. (1950).Trois incidences pour l’exam du rocher, Acta Radiol. 34:274-287.

CHAUSSE III
Head in the PA position then rotate the head 5-10 degrees towards the unaffected side. Centre along the radiographic baseline midway between the outer canthus and the EAM.

CHAUSSE IV
See Stenvers view (C-Ear).

CINCINATTI VIEW
Supine chest x-ray coned to the mediastinum, a high kV filter is used. The filter consists of 0.5mm copper and 0.4mm tin inserted so that the copper layer is nearest the tube. A CT scoutview (topogram) is an alternative.

CLEAVES METHOD (HIP)
Axial projection of the femoral heads, necks, and trochanteric areas projected onto one film. Position as a frog-leg lateral and centre to the symphysis pubis with the central ray angled to be parallel with the long axes of the femoral shafts.

CLEAVES METHOD (SHOULDER)
An axial projection of the shoulder.This technique requires non-cassette film.
Ref: Cleaves, E.N.(1941).A new film holder for roentgen examination of the shoulder, A.J.R. 45:288-290.

CLEMENTS view.
It?s basically an offsetview where you externally rotate the wrist and hand obliquely it to the image plate at about 45 degrees, and angle cranially about 5 degrees It not only gives you a full view of the trapezium, but it gives you a good CMC view and then isolates the STT and TT joints. It helps to stage arthritic disease and in the selection of surgical technique.

CLEMENTS NAKAYAMA METHOD
Lateral view of acetabulum and femoral head.This method can be used where the opposite hip cannot be raised for a horizontal beam lateral hip.

COALITION VIEW
Demonstrates a calcaneotalar coalition.Patient standing with the cassette under the long axis the calcaneum. Angle the central ray 45 degrees and direct it through the posterior surface of the flexed ankle to the level of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
COBEYS VIEW is a weight bearing AP ankle projection used to demonstrate the angulation between the long axis of the calcaneum and the tibia (some call it a Buckview) It is a PA projection done on a special radiolucent platform. The patient stands on the platform equal weight on both feet with the toes on the side of interest against a 7 X 17 IR. (no grid, 40 SID) The platform holds the IR at a 20 degree tilt from vertical (away from the patient)The CR is angled caudal at 20 degree centered at the level of the ankle joint. (The tube and IR will be parallel to eachother.) Collimate to include as much of the tib/fib possible. A radiopaque marker is placed just behind the heel for measuring purposes when analizing alignment.e tibia, radiographically imaging the coronal plane alignment of the hindfoot.

COLCHER-SUSSMAN PROJECTION (AP)
Pelvimetry view.Metal ruler engraved at cm intervals (Colcher-Sussman pelvimeter) is required.Patient supine with the knees flexed and the thighs abducted so that the ruler can be placed horizontally, centred to the gluteal fold at the level of the ischial tuberosities.Centre the vertical central beam 2.5cm above the symphysis pubis.

COLCHER-SUSSMAN PROJECTION (LATERAL)
Pelvimetry view.Metal ruler engraved at cm intervals (Colcher-Sussman pelvimeter) is required.Patient lies in the lateral position thighs extended so that they do not obscure the symphysis pubis.The ruler is horizontal at the height of and against the mid sacrum.Centre horizontal beam to the greater trochanter.

COYLE TRAUMA METHODS
Projections of the radial head and/or the coronoid process of the ulnaRadial head view Elbow flexed 90 degrees and hand pronated. Vertical central ray angled 45 degrees towards the shoulder. Centre to the radial head.Coronoid process viewElbow flexed 80 degrees from extended position with the hand pronated. Vertical central ray angled 45 degrees away from the shoulder and directed to the elbow joint.
Ref: Coyle, George F.(1980).Radiographing Immobile Trauma Patients, Unit 7, Special Angled Views of Joints – Elbow, Knee, Ankle. Multi-Media Publishing, Inc., Denver.

CRANIODORSAL HEADVIEW
Hip view.Supine hip with the knees extended and legs internally rotated. Central ray angled 30 degrees caudally, centre over the hip.
Ref: Schneider (1964).

CRANIOVENTRAL HEADVIEW
Hip view.Supine hip centred on the femoral head with the leg raised 45 degrees.
Ref:Schneider (1964).

Continued on my next post…

2 Responses to “Complete Alphabetical List of Radiographic Projections”

  • dr. lemuel t magaling says:

    Harriet very nice and awesome work you have. keep doing the good things for the science. Godspeed.

    he. he. he please send me the complete positioning list because i am finding a certain position called noonard view in wrist xray positioning. thank you

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